Debug your procedural world generation much easier with this one simple trick

This post is about The Cluster, my 2.5D platform game under development with focus on non-linear exploration, set in a big, continuous world. You can read all the posts about The Cluster here.

Okay cheesy title aside, this trick really did make debugging much easier for me, though the trick really is also very basic in retrospect. But it took me years to realize this, so maybe it will help somebody else too.

TLDR; freeze the generation at the exact point you encounter an error, but let the game continue running so you can inspect the frozen generation state with full visual context, turning various in-game debug visualizations on and off, and moving the camera around as needed.

A problem I've had for a long time is that errors in the procedural generation of my game can be hard to debug. The game have many sub-systems dependent on each other. When the player approaches an area that hasn't yet been generated, it will be generated by the various sub-systems on the fly with the various dependencies respected. Terrain info needs to be generated before path-finding info for instance.

The complexity of the dependency relations can make it hard to keep track of exactly how something went wrong, and whether an issue was caused by a bug in generation code itself, or a bug in the dependencies code that meant some needed information wasn't yet available.

Add to that the challenge that many of the generation algorithms modify data in several passes, and just looking at a visualization of the data at the end of the generation may not be sufficient to see how the data was wrong at some step in the middle of the process.

The normal way to inspect data in the middle of a process is by using breakpoints. But breakpoints only let you inspect data in your text/debugging IDE as numbers, and data for procedural generation is often incomprehensible at that low of an abstraction level. The custom-made visual debugging tools are really needed, but they can't be enabled and manipulated while the entire game is paused. And according to StackOverflow, individual threads can't be paused selectively.
Generation breakpoint triggered and visual debugging used to inspect the state.
For the trick to work, your procedural generation needs to fulfill these criteria:
  • The generation should not happen on the main thread where the game loop and logic runs. This means you need to perform the procedural generation in one or more threads dedicated to that. This is pretty much needed anyway if your game generates new parts of the world on the fly without pausing the play. In my game I run all the generation in just one thread.
  • Make your life simpler by making it easy to switch various debug visualizations on and off at any point while running the game.
  • Obviously, have places in your code (such as asserts) where you check if what you take for granted is true and print a helpful error otherwise with as much info about the problem as possible. In addition to messages that are just printed in the console, I also have positional logging which shows up in the game world at a specific 3D position if the relevant debug visualization is enabled.
The trick is to implement your own breakpoints that pause the generation thread. I did it like this:

Whereever I have detected a problem that I want to pause the game, I just call
In the Debugging class I have this code:
    static bool waitForBreakpoints = false;
    static bool breakpointPaused = false;
    public static void GenerationBreakpoint () {
        if (!waitForBreakpoints)
        breakpointPaused = true;
        while (breakpointPaused)
            System.Threading.Thread.Sleep (5);
I then have some debugging UI with a setting to turn waitForBreakpoints on and off, and a Resume button that is only shown when BreakpointPaused is true, and which sets it to false again when clicked.

That's it!
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